Zambia Culture and People, Way of Life, Ethnicity

Zambia’s present-day culture is actually a combination of beliefs, some social norms, material and spiritual traditions of more than 70 ethnically different people. Prior to the colonial period, the region currently called Zambia used to be host of several free states. Each boasting thorough trade ties with each other and also the other places across trade routes for the east and even west coast of Africa. The primary exports were copper, ivory and slaves in exchange for textiles, jewellery, salt and hardware. Many of the rural population nonetheless, have kept their indigenous and traditional customs and beliefs.Institutions to safeguard and even showcase Zambia’s tradition had been formed, such as the National Heritage Conservation Commission. Private museums have been also founded and also cultural villages were formed to promote the expression of artistic talents.

Music and Dance

Hushed beauty, bustle, bounding life or utmost delight define numerous elements of music and dance in Zambia. Emphasis varies from satisfying acrobatic spectacle amid drumming to fine subtleties of sound and movement.Several traditional instruments continue to be played throughout the country, although need for western musical instruments grows. The harder widespread ones are classified as the hand piano played using both thumbs, the silimba, a xylophone type instrument with a spectrum of flat wooden keys attached to gourds while the most common being the drums. Drumming takes on a significant part of rituals, ceremonies, celebrations and local communication.Dance is a key part of musical expression among Africans. The impact from the west along with the rest of Africa is deep rooted within music tastes on the modern age group within Zambia. Within the big cities, night clubs and drinking places belt the Kwela music as well as rumba at the same time upcoming local bands play for the increasingly modern youth.

Arts & Crafts

Zambia’s unique cultures have many traditional skills. Crafts can be bought in great variety or else in abundance. Zambia is among the finest basketry within Africa. The financial state of the majority of the crafts makers draws on fishing, livestock or even the farming. Craftwork is usually carried out between seasons to supplement the earnings for many people. Pieces created include lampshades, furniture, shopping and laundry baskets. The many forms and resources chosen reveal the setting in which they are made: bamboo, liana vines, roots, reeds, grasses, rushes, papyrus palm leaves, bark and sisal. They are embellished with remarkable designs working with local dyes made from distinct shaded soils, roots, bark and leaves. The range of uses of basketry is usually wide; table ware, fishing traps, flour sieves, beer strainers, sleeping/ eating mats, carrying and storage.It is the men that usually do the woodworking and also carving to form canoes, walking sticks, utensils, masks, drums as well as furniture.

Zambia Urban Life

The significant towns or cities, Lusaka, Livingstone plus the towns on the Copperbelt are where most of the rural people go when they decide to leave their villages. This impact upon the urban centers has been tremendous. The rise of shanty towns surrounding the peripheries, without electricity or even adequate sanitation boosts equally disease and crime. Small scale establishments emerge in all places such as tailors, cobblers, vegetable sellers, money exchangers to many walking salesmen selling anything from frying pans, electric plugs and batteries to fruit, vegetables and nuts.But despite the hustle and discomfort in the city, the draw is robust. The countryside could be more healthy, a lot more open and free, but to many of the rural young, it truly is monotonous in contrast to the activity and energy in the big towns.

The People Of  Zambia

Zambia has got among the lowest human population in Africa; about 10 million people. It is probably the most urban growing countries in Africa thanks to the employment opportunities from the copper Belt and other towns. Zambia’s contemporary heritage is a blend of beliefs, norms and also spiritual practices of over 60 to 70 different tribal groups. Most of the tribes relocated here from around Africa, creating many kingdoms, pastures as well as farm lands. It was in fact referred to as the land of Free states having strong trade ties over the east as well as west coast. The main exports were copper, ivory and slaves to acquire textiles, jewellery, salt as well as hardware.Associations to protect and showcase Zambia’s heritage were created, for example the National Heritage Conservation Commission. Private museums and also cultural villages were also founded to promote the artistic skills.

Enjoy Zambia’s Traditional Culture

The atmosphere is normally inundated with acrobatic scenes, bustle and also beauty and joy moving to the tunes of traditional instruments for instance the thumb piano, drums, silimba, a wooden xylophone as well as others. Music and dance is an important of the tribal celebrations and also traditions for instance peace, initiation ceremonies, war as well as joyous festivities. The influence from the western world is shown in the recent music style. Around the popular towns, night clubs as well as shebeens play sounds of Kwela and rumba while local bands perform to the more and more westernised youth.

Visit Zambian Museums

Zambia’s varied cultures come up with an array of traditional skills. Art and craftwork supplements the household incomes of the people who are mainly keen on fishing, farming and also pasturing. Pieces made comprise of table ware, lampshades, fishing traps, beer strainers, pots, mats, baskets and furniture. Nevertheless, many of those items are already substituted for plastics and tin especially within the urban areas. The youth are likewise losing out these traditional skills that have been kept for hundreds of years.

However there are organizations such as Zintu Handicrafts within Lusaka, the Nayuma Museum found in Mongu, the Tonga Museum of Choma and the Moto Moto Museum found in Mbala usually established to enhance outstanding hand made crafts and also the artsistic works with the local communities. Handicrafts are distinctive for being eco friendly as local material such as bamboo, roots, grass, papyrus reeds, bark, recyclable materials and sisal can be used. The crafts are subsequently decorated with emblematic designs from traditional dyes made from distinctive colored soils, roots, bark as well as leaves.Pottery, woodwork and sculpturing is often done by men. Products created include canoes, furniture, walking sticks, utensils, masks, musical instruments along with clay pots. Most of the crafts are available around markets and craft shops; many make wonderful holiday memoirs and also gift items for holidaymakers.

Zambia Museums

This exceptional museum in Choma over the Lusaka or Livingstone Highway upholds the customs of the Tonga people of the Southern Province. It has got countless traditional crafts for example beadwork, music tools, warrior spears, clay made pottery, jewellery and much more. The Crafts venture stimulates making of local crafts for example baskets, beadwork, carvings, and so forth. The purpose is always to uphold local traditional skills and abilities as well as providing a substitute form of cash flow to the people of Southern Province. This Zambia museum currently sells abroad these crafts, especially Tonga baskets. The museum is open each day from 8.00 to 17h00.

Visit Zambia Museums

This museum found in Ndola houses objects picked up in the region dating back to the Stone Age. Accessible regularly from 9am and close at 5pm.

This is one of Zambia’s distinguished museum plus in Livingstone town. It consists of 4 sections that explain the heritage with this rich country; Ethnography and Art, Archaeology, Natural history and even History. You are going to additionally come across a range of Dr.Livingstone memorial collectibles, from his possessions up to writings on the routes he came across. Opened daily by 9:00am until 5pm with the exception of the public holidays. Please note that you will have to give a affordable entry fee.Accommodation in Zambia ranges from luxury hotels,safari lodges,guest houses and apartments.Choice depends on what you want.

This village museum from Livingstone was built to retain the artistry, craftwork as well as tradition of Zambia. Right here meet the blacksmiths, wood carvers, sculptors, potters together with other craftsmen working on everything just as it had been done for ages.

This museum located at Mbala in the northern region boasts an impressive collection of articles relevant to Zambian heritage as well as tradition. It contains several aspects of Zambian Fine art, devices, instruments of crafts, bits and pieces used for initiation festivals and also objects of witchcraft .

Major Tourist  Attractions


This specific cultural heritage museum tells the background about Zambia using four main divisions; ethnography, witchcraft, history and contemporary art.

This particular museum located in Mongu motivates the arts as well as handicrafts of the citizens from the Barotseland region, not only in its various traditional versions and where such craftwork is definitely a concept of art.

It is actually centered at Livingstone, open and enter after paying a fee, from 8h30 to 16h30. The museum holds several of the most interesting examples of Zambia’s railway history ranging from very old steam engines, the old-fashioned coaches as well as littlest train relics.

This specific museum is constructed to show the life and also history of the Victoria Falls for around several decades back until now. It also has got displays demonstrating how the falls were formed. The museum is actually visited regularly starting from about 10 o’clock to 5pm.

Ethiopia Culture and Lifestyles

As a country with more than 1000 year behind its history and heritage, there is a lot to discover about its people and culture. Ethiopia is home to nearly 80 different ethnic groups that have unique cultural traits, religious beliefs, languages and traditions.

Ethiopian People and tribal groups

The Ethiopian people can be grouped into 83 different tribal groupings mainly Semitic, onotic, Nio-Saharan and the Cushitic-altogether speaking 200 different languages! The Oromo and Amhara make up nearly 50% of the entire Ethiopian population and others being the Somali, Tigraway, Hadiya, Wolayta, Afar and Sidama.

Semitic people: these people are found in north western and central ares of Ethiopia. The language spoken by the Semitic is similar to Hebrew and the Arabic claimed to be rooted in Ge’ez in Ecclesiastes. Most Semitic people however use Amharic which also doubles as the national language besides English. Other languages spoken in Ethiopia include Afan Oromo, Sidaminya, Tigrigna, Gumuz, GuraginyaSomalinya, Afarinya, Berta, Adarinya and Anuak.

The Cushitis Oromo are modern agriculturalist growing millet, barley, sorghum, maize and other just like the Tigrigna and Gurage. The Somali and Afar are pastoralist and semi pastoralist respectively living under the hostile weather of Dankail depression.

Ethiopian Religion and Beliefs

Although Christianity has strong roots in Ethiopia, the country celebrates different festival and cultural events throughout the year for different tribes. Christian celebrations and festival are however very unique under the Ethiopian orthodox church customs. Some of the most celebrated church festivals include Ethiopian Christmas, the Ephiphany, Finding of the cross and the New Year. Many tourists from all over the world come to celebrate the colorful ceremonies with the Ethiopian people.

In the northern region of Gondar are the Ethiopian Jews ‘Falashas’ although many have left the country to live in America, Europe and Israel.

Nevertheless, Islam is also practiced in Ethiopia especially for the south eastern parts of the country. History has it that Ethiopian Muslims were around even during the early days of Prophet Mohammed and this is apparent in the walled city of Harar  which Muslims all over the world consider to be as important and holy as Jerusalem, Medina and Mecca for pilgrimage!

The fasting and festivals in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has amazing food that you all need to try out once you visit the country but get to know this that where there is food there is fasting as per the culture of the Ethiopians. The people of Ethiopia are known to love their spicy food which means that if you are interested in tasting all the Ethiopian food, then you will need to be ready to eat the spicy food. The staple food in Ethiopia is Injera and it looks like a big pancake though with a spongy feeling and when eating food in Ethiopia, you are supposed to use only your right hand as the left hand is believed to have bad omen.
When it comes to the fasting period in the country, only vegetarian food is served mostly fifty five days to Easter and everyone is meant to fast for all those days as they remember the death and resurrection of Jesus. And since most people are Orthodox Christians in the country, Easter is celebrated with a lot of cheer and it is on this very day that all kinds of meat are served on this day.

Food and Dining

Traditional dining and meals is a special time in Ethiopia’s customs and cultures. There are a few rules and ritual followed during the breaking of bread often reflecting the occasions like sharing, family gatherings, friendship, marriage and so much more.

Injera is the traditional Ethiopian dish of fermented pan cake served with a variety of spiced sauce and eaten using fingers. A small piece of Injera is picked and dipped in the sauce bowl before eating. The Gurage people have enset, ‘false banana’, whose roots, stem and leaves are prepared over long periods to make unleavened bread and porridge.Other foods eaten and farmed in Ethiopia include millet, wheat, sorghum, barley and maize

Music and Dance in Ethiopia

With so many tribes and cultures within Ethiopia, expect unique traits when it comes to music, dance and drama for the different festivals. Particular dances and music is played during different festivities with traditional instruments like the single stringed Maseno, the krar-a lyre like stringed instrument and a portable harp called Begenna.

Traditional folk songs are high pitched amid ululations and excitement as seen on weddings and other happy occasions. Spectacular rhythmic dances accompany songs with vigorous shoulder movements and waste shaking!

It is equally important to note that Raggae music is thought to have roots in Ethiopia as proclaimed by the lengendary Bob Marley!

Ethiopian Clothing and Jewelry

The dressing and garments of Ethiopian varies from cultures and tribes but the common white cotton scarf has been worn by Christians since the mod 1800s. Christian men dree in long jodhpur like trousers, fitting shirt and a loose wrapper called shamma.

The moslems of Harar wear colorful garments; women have red, black and purple dresses while the men wear short like trousers and a colored wrap. The Oromo put on beaded leather garments while the Somalis and Afar have brightly colored cotton wrappers to adorn modern outfits. Many of the clothing styles are a reflection of the social status, economic activity, weather conditions and religion!

The traditional dress for Ethiopian is a light cotton dresses, or scarf with brightly colored hems in threads of Gold, blue, green and red. This colorful attire is used on festival and can be seen with the cabin crew on Ethiopian Airlines! This type of clothing is accessorized with gold and silver jewelry. Bracelets, necklaces and ear rings are also made out ivory, copper, heavy brass and glass among other materials.

Something distinct about the Ethiopian women is the hair style and art. Amhara and Tigray women have their long hair woven into 12 Sherubs plaits that flow to the shoulders. May other tribes also have special hair styles and head clothes/gear.

Ethiopia Public Holidays, Time and Calendar

The time and calendar that are used when it comes to Ethiopia and that is why most of their holidays are extremely different from the rest of the world. Ethiopians still use the old calendar which is extremely different from the Gregorian calendar that is used by most countries. This makes most of their holidays to come in different months and they are somehow behind the rest of the world.
The way time is counted in Ethiopia is also different from how other countries that is a day in Ethiopia begins at mid-day and yet in other countries, most people begin their day at 6:00am which means that the clock in Ethiopia is six hours behind the normal time and therefore before you travel to Ethiopia you will need an adjustment of your watch in order to match theirs. This might not sound like a cultural thing but getting to know more about the time and calendar change, will give you a chance to not miss out on some of the cultural activities that are carried out in the country.
The culture in Ethiopia might come as shocking to some tourists and since we have not looked at all the cultures that are practiced in the country, you will need to visit the country and experience all this. We can easily arrange a cultural trip to Ethiopia so that you get a chance to see the different cultures that are practiced by the different tribes that are found in the country and you will need a tour guide to take you on the various trips since most of the people in the areas that you will visit do not speak or understand English and these areas are safe to visit.

Ethiopia has a different calendar called the Julian calendar (also called Ge’ez calendar) what has twelve months of 30 days each and an extra month of 5 days or 6 days during the leap year.  This Julian calendar is 7 years behind the Gregorian calendar used in many countries across the world.

  • The Ethiopian New Year or Enkutatash is celebrated on the 11th September or September 12th for the leap year. Other public holidays in Ethiopia include
  • The Finding of the cross Meskal on September 26
    Ethiopian Christmas on January 8
  • The feast of Epiphany Timkat on January 20
  • Victory of Adawa March 2
  • Birth of Prophet Mohammed Mauwlid March 20
  • Eid el fitr (at the end of Ramadhan fasting period-date according to Islamic calender)
  • Eid al alhuda (dates according to Islamic calendar)
  • Good Friday (dates change with Christian calendar)
  • Ethiopian Easter (date according to Christian calendar)
  • International Labor day May 1st
  • Patriots Victory Day May 5th
  • Downfall of Dergue Regime May 28

An Ethiopian cultural trip

If you ever want to travel back in time and experience both the mediaeval and modern times in one lace, the perfect destination for you to be is Ethiopia. The country has a variety of cultures that are worth experiencing and this is because it was nit colonized like the rest of the African countries and therefore there is little influence from the European countries which means that you will have to experience the African culture without filters.

Explore the tribes of the Omo Valley

The tribes in the Omo Valley are one of the few that have maintained their traditional way of life although at the moment they are being threatened by tourists who visit and introduce new ideas and the construction of the new dam that is being constructed because most of them are going to be misplaced. There are over twelve tribes that are found in the Omo valley and the most unique thing about them is that inter marriages are not always allowed which has maintained the unique character that each tribe has.

The Omo valley is said to be one of the few places in the world and in Africa where various fossils were discovered and many people also visit the valley to look at the place where humans are said to have originated from over 20,000 years ago. Some of the tribes that live in the Omo valley include:

  • The Konso tribe

The Konso people live in the Konso region which was declared a UNESCO heritage site due to the uniqueness of the constructions that are found in the region. The Konso people construct their houses using stone and their walls that separate them from the rest of the crowd are also constructed using stone. These locals live the same way that they used to centuries ago and a visit to the Konso community will have you enjoy more of their calm way of life. It is sometimes crowded especially during the peak season but you still get to enjoy the beautiful culture that is portrayed by the locals.

  • The Harmer tribe

The Hamar people are also locals in the Omo valley and they also have a unique culture that has been exhibited for very many years and this normally affects the women. The women of the Hamar tribe in order to look beautiful to their men dye their hair red with the red clay and after that they get to braid the hair after it has dried out.

The Harmer men also get to participate in the bull jumping ceremony where before being declared as full grown men, they have to jump all the bulls in a line and whoever manages to jump then without falling becomes a man according to their tradition. You can join the rest of the crowd as they watch the bull jumping ceremony and the ladies can also join in the dying of their hair red.

  • The Karo tribe

The Karo people live on the Eastern side of the Omo River and they are mostly famous for their body painting activity that is done by both women and men. They normally paint their bodies with natural paint that is not harmful to the body and many designs are drawn by an expert. Tourist are free to join in the painting and spend the evening around the fire enjoying the stories that are told by the old people.

  • The Daasanach tribe

The Daasanach tribe can be found living on the banks of the Omo River and they are the smallest group of people who live in the Omo valley. They have their own cultural practices that you will experience once you visit the settlement. The most unique thing about the Daasanach is the way they build their houses that is the houses that they live in can be folded and then rebuilt after sometime.

  • The Dorze tribe

The Dorze tribe is known for their good knitting cotton techniques in the valley. They mostly knit their cotton using hands and that is what makes it so special and they also have homes that are constructed like bee hives. Visit the Dorze and learn some cotton techniques as you taste their good food.

  • The Mursi tribe

The Mursi people have the same characteristics like the Masai people who live in Kenya and here the women adorn themselves with lip plates on their mouths and these are placed when the girls are still young and the plates are not removed because the women believe it adds on their beauty. They also elongate their ear lobes and even though it might look barbaric, it is their way of culture and the bigger the size of plate, the greater a beauty one is considered.

  • The Bana tribe

The Banna tribe is also a small group of people and compared to the rest of the tribes, they have nothing unique to offer besides the fact that they control the economy of the Omo valley. They are known to be good entrepreneurs and this has earned them a place to be running all the markets that are found in the valley and they also offer entrepreneur skills for all those that need them.

All the above tribes have a lot to offer to tourists who visit the valley and they also have different cultural practices of the different tribes that are found in the Omo valley include:

  • They have value for cattle that is the more cattle that you have the more prestigious you are in the community.
  • They eat almost everything on cattle that is the meat, milk and the blood that is cooked and dried to eat during the times when the food is scarce.
  • They have the bull jumping ceremony where boys are supposed to jump over the bulls without falling in order to be considered men.
  • The women in these tribes are respected according to the dowry that is paid for them. The more the cows, the more respect they get and the reverse is true.

Swazi People and Culture

This small country is a rich heritage when it comes to culture, lifestyles and daily life. Special aspects of authentic Swaziland culture are evident in the different things like food, music, homesteads and in every thing.

Music and Dance

The Sibhaca, a foot stamping dance, vigorous in style, is performed by teams of men throughout the country. The rhythm and spectacular physique of the men when performing causes wonder and admiration from the spectators. Sibhaca dance is sometimes performed as a competition or just for fun, depending on the occasion.

Swazi Reed Dance
The reed dance is a spectacular annual event attracting multitudes of tourists to the Kingdom of Swaziland. Performing at the reed dance ceremony are thousands of Swazi maidens in their traditional attire. These Swazi girls come from various locations over the country and gather together for the ceremony which lasts for about eight days. The Umhlanga Reed Dance occurs towards the end of the month of August, when the seasons start changing and the reed is matured and ready for harvest. This event presents the maidens with an opportunity to pay honour to the Queen Mother. Only childless, unwed girls are permitted to take part in the event.


A supreme God/creator was recognised, but more important were the spirits of ancestors. Beasts were slaughtered and beer was brewed to please (propitiate) the spirits, and ask for help.

Traditional healers are still widespread.


Boys and men wore loin-skins of selected wild animals. Girls wore grass skirts. A woman with a child wore a cow-skin skirt, and put her hair up in a bun/”bee-hive” hairstyle. A married (“lobola’ed”) woman wore a goat-skin apron over her shoulder.

SWAZI homesteads

The principle Swazi social unit remains the homestead locally refered to as UMTI. The traditional beehive hut is thatched with dry grass. In a polygamous homestead, each wife normally has her own huts and yard surrounded by reed fences for privacy. These comprise three structures mainly for sleeping, cooking and storage (brewing beer).

In substantial homesteads there will also be structures used as bachelors’ quarters and guest accommodation. Central to the traditional homestead is the cattle byre, a circular area enclosed by substantial logs interspaced with branches. The cattle byre has great ritual as well as practical significance as a store of wealth and symbol of prestige. It contains sealed grain pits. Facing the cattle byre is the great hut which is occupied by the mother of the headman.

Every man belonged to an age-regiment, for war and tribute labour. Young men opted to be permanent warriors attached to royal homesteads. Colour of cow-hide shield and other decorations identify the regiment. King calls them out 4 times a year Incwala (January or December), weeding King’s sorghum fields (January), harvesting sorghum (May) and threshing sorghum (July).

Food and Dining

Various activities are performed along gender lines, for example, the griding of mealies remains the preserve of women. This is prior to the preparation of Swazi food.

  • sishwala -thick porridge normally served with meat or vegetables
  • incwancwa -sour porridge made of fermented mealie meal
  • sitfubi -fresh milk cooked and mixed with mealie meal
  • siphuphe setindlubu -thick porridge made of mashed groundnuts
  • emasi etinkhobe temmbila -ground mealies mixed with sour milk
  • emasi emabele -ground sorghum mixed with sour milk
  • sidvudvu -porridge made of pumpkin mixed with mealie meal
  • umncweba -dried uncooked meat (biltong)
  • umkhunsu -cooked and dried meat
  • siphuphe semabhontjisi -thick porridge made of mashed beans
  • tinkhobe -boiled whole maize
  • umbidvo wetintsanga -cooked pumpkin tops (leaves) mixed with groundnuts
  • tjwala (umcombotsi) -traditional beer

Swaziland Harvest Festival

The Ncwala, or first fruit ceremony is considered to be the most sacred and colorful of all the Swazi ceremonies in which the King plays a dominant role. The Ncwala is usually held in December or January upon a date chosen carefully by Swazi astronomers in conjunction with the position of the sun relating to the phases of the moon, and takes place over three weeks.
The ritual begins as the Bemanti clan or “water people” make their way to the Mozambique coast, where they collect the foam from the waves, which is believed to have healing powers. The return to the Royal palace commences in the celebration of the Little iNcwala, which takes place before the appearance of the full moon.


Like in many African countries, for marriage dowry is an important part of it. In Swaziland, dowry is called “lobola” and a potential bachelor gives around 15 cattle to the parents of the girl as a sign of respect and appreciation.

Traditional wedding/”umtsimba” is usually held on a weekend in dry season (June – August). Bride and her relatives go to groom’s homestead on Friday evening. Saturday morning – bridal party sit by nearby river, eat beast (goat/cow) offered by groom’s family; afternoon – dance in the groom’s homestead. Sunday morning – bride, with her female relatives, stabs ground with a spear in man’s cattle kraal, later she is smeared with red ochre. The smearing is the high point of marriage – no woman can be smeared twice. Bride presents gifts to husband and his relatives.


Commoners are buried next to homestead, kings and royals in mountain caves. Funerals are important as means of the extended family meeting from time to time. A month after the funeral they meet again to wash away the contamination of death.

Mantenga Cultural Village

The cultural village is a living museum of all things traditional and represents a classical Swazi lifestyle during the 1850’s. The building materials are strictly traditional: poles, grass, reeds, leather strips, earth and dried cow-dung.

The Mantenga Village is a mini-complex of sixteen huts, each with its own specific purpose, kraals or byres for cattle and goats, reed fences that serve as windbreaks, and various other structures. With the traditional artefacts on display, the village illustrates many facets of the ancient Swazi way of life: social, economic and religious.

Angola Culture and People

Southern Africa is one of the gifted regions when it comes to culture, ethnicity and people. In the same way, Angola is one of the diverse culture countries in Africa. It may be the National Parks in Angola that attract several tourists but the cultures and lifestyle of Angolan is something unique…worthy of discovering!


Thinker is one of the most beautiful pieces of art in the Chokwe origin and represents all Angolans by symbolizing its national culture. The sculpture statue is seen bending down with both legs crossed and its hands placed on its head, which symbolizes the human thought. It is one of the oldest artifacts in Angola

The cultural origins of Angola relate to the Bantu peoples in Central Africa and the ancient kingdom of Kongo  Due to its location on the southwestern coast of Africa, Angola became a key colonial region for early explorers and the growing Portuguese empire around 1500 AD. Its is not until the 19th century did Portugal try to make Angola one of its strong territories only to inspire resistance among the local Angolans leading to the independence

Angola’s struggle for independence was long and violent, and life in the independent nation has also been marred by intense civil war. The road to independence destructed the strong cohesion of local cultures and likewise the Portuguese traits that loomed on the coastal region. The largest ethnic groups in Angola have distinct cultural profiles as well as different political loyalties.

Peoples of Angola

Angola’s population is estimated to be 18,498,000 (2009). It is composed of Ovimbundu (language Umbundu) 37%, Ambundu (language Kimbundu) 25%, Bakongo 13%, and 32% other ethnic groups (including the Ovambo, the Ganguela and the Xindonga) as well as about 2% mestiços (mixed European and African) and 1% European. The Ambundu and Ovimbundu nations combined form a majority of the population, at 62%.


Some of the prominent peoples/ tribes include tthe Ovimbundu , who are located in the central and southern areas and speak Umbundu . The Mbundu are concentrated in the capital, Luanda, and in the central and northern areas and speak Kimbundu.


The Bakongo speak variants of the Kikongo language and also live in the northern part of Angola. A  majority of the Bakongo who had fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo in the early 1960s, or of their children and grandchildren, returned to Angola, but mostly did not settle in their original “habitat”, but in the cities—and again above all in Luanda.

Other important groups include the Lunda, Chokwe, and Nganguela peoples, whose settlements are in the east. A small but important minority of mesticos (Portuguese-Africans) live in larger cities, especially Luanda. Before 1975, Angola had one of the largest white minorities in Africa, many of whom had never seen Portugal, but most left at the threat of independence.

Religion and Beliefs

Portuguese is the country’s official language, and the majority of Angolans are Roman Catholics. There are also smaller numbers of Protestants and people who practice traditional religions exclusively, though many Angolans combine some traditional beliefs with their Christianity.

The Muslims, practically all of them immigrants from West African and other countries and belonging to the Sunnite branch,

The traditional arts of Angola have played an important part in cultural rituals marking such passages as birth or death, childhood to adulthood, and the harvest and hunting seasons. In producing masks and other items from bronze, ivory, wood, malachite, or ceramics, each ethnolinguistic group has distinct styles. For example, the ritual masks created by the Lunda-Chokwerepresent such figures from their mythology as Princess Lweji and Prince Tschibinda-Ilunga.

Education and literature

Literacy is quite low, with 67.4% of the population over the age of 15 able to read and write in Portuguese.82.9% of males and 54.2% of women are literate as of 2001. Since independence from Portugal in 1975, a number of Angolan students continued to be admitted every year at high schools, polytechnic institutes, and universities in Portugal, Brazil and Cuba through bilateral agreements; in general, these students belong to the Angolan elites.

Music, Drama and Art

Music is the heart and soul of every Angolan, it can be heard anywhere and they use anything as an excuse to party. The country has a wide range of music, mainly Kuduro, Kizomba, Semba, and Tarrachinha, the latter being more sensual than all the others. In all, it is safe to say that Angolans are fun and loving people with a thirst for more of what life has to give.

The use of these ceremonial masks is always accompanied with music and storytelling, both of which have developed in important ways. Angolans’ literary roots in the oral tradition were overlaid during the 19th century with the writings of Portuguese-educated Portuguese-Africans in the cities.

Angola’s most famous poet, Antonio Agostinho Neto, was the leader of an important political movement. His works centered on themes of freedom and have been translated into many languages. Post-independence literature, however, has been limited by censorship and ongoing political strife.

Buildings and Architecture

Many buildings in Angola record the cultural contributions of the Portuguese. Some of the earliest landmarks are churches in the far north that served as bases for missionaries to the Kongo kingdom. One fine example of many is the Church of Se in the city of Mbanza Kongo. Actually, Portuguese architecture is one of the most fascinating attractions in Angola and by far one of the best parts of Angola Travel/ tour itinerary.

The later construction of many coastal forts corresponds to the area’s growing slave trade. Fort Sao Miguel in Luanda, built at the turn of the 17th century, is the most famous of these. This massive fort was for many years a self-contained town protected by thick walls encrusted with cannons. The fort served as slave depot, administrative center, and residence for the Portuguese community.

The Cathedral of Luanda, completed in 1628, is another impressive monument in the capital. Virtually every coastal city has a set of historic buildings that are broadly similar. The Church of Sao Tiago in the town of Namibe, for example, was built during the 19th century in a style very reminiscent of the 16th-century churches in more northern towns.

Malawi Cultural Tours, Malawian culture


Malawi as a country has one of the most unique cultures due to the many tribes that are found in the country. Also known as the Warm Heart of Africa, it is a good place for one to take a trip if you want to learn more about the African culture. There are many villages and tribes that you can visit in Malawi and since the Malawians are welcoming people, it will be easy for you to move from one place to the next while understanding the Malawian culture.

The Malawians are known to be so close when it comes to family and that is why you will find many huts belonging to one family only because they believe that family has to be together in order for them to grow economically. Some of the tribes that are found in the country include the Yao people who live in the North, the Lomwe people, the Tumbuka people, the Ngoni tribe, the Chichewa tribe, Sena people and many more  others. Although you will find that are  other tribes in the country due to the fact that Arabs that carried out trade at the border of the country and that is why you will find Asians and some Europeans living in the country as well and these also have their own culture that you will want to learn about.

The Tonga tribe

The Tonga people live in Nkhata bay in Northern Malawi. They are mostly Christians but before they were traditionalists where they all believed in the dead and praying with them and they also believed that before someone died, they could take some medicine that would turn them into any animal that they wanted so that they keep on watching over their family. When it comes to divorce it is very okay for a woman to divorce him without giving any relevant reasons whereas if it is the man who wants a divorce, they are given a chance to have a public gathering so that they give their reasons as to why they want to divorce their wife. And you will also find many Tonga men putting on a shirt, a tie with a collar when the back of the shirt is off.

The Yao tribe

The Yao tribe can be found in the areas of Liwonde near the border of Malawi and Mozambique. They speak a language known as Chiyao and they are believed to be the first tribe in Malawi to fight while using arms and also the first one to convert to Islam in the whole country. They became Moslems after the Arabs that they traded with for a long time preached to them and they stopped trading with the traditionalists that first lived in the area.

The Ngoni people

The Ngoni people migrated from South Africa and settled in the southern part of Malawi in the Neno town. They speak a language known as chingoni. The Ngoni people were mostly known for their love for fighting and their love for African made beer and meat which they still love till today. If you want to have a taste of the African beer, this is the right group of people to visit and while visiting them and enjoying their beer, there are stories that will always be told about their unique culture.


The Lomwe people

The Lomwe people live in the Thyolo hills and they are known farmers in that part of Malawi. The Lomwe people speak Chichewa and they believe that the spirits that they believe in reside in the Mulanje Mountain because they used to find mysterious food in the Mountain and they would take it home but it was supposed to be eaten by the one who found it because if you invited another person to eat with you, the food would disappear. They are also known to be people are open minded, talk a lot and are firm believers in spirits and when it comes to traditional dances, the girls are not supposed to cover their breasts but only put on beads.

The Chewa tribe in Malawi

The Chewa people are the first ones who lived in Malawi and they speak a language known as the Chichewa which at the moment is being used by almost everyone who is living in Malawi as a National language. These people normally live in the central part of the country and they also have a few cultural beliefs that they have to follow as a group of people. The locals wear masks during the secret traditional dances, they believe that God is the creator of everything, you are supposed to drop a coin in the gule if you are passing by the road during the big dance ceremonies although you will have to learn more about them if you take a trip to central Malawi to meet the Chewa people.

Visit the Sena tribe

The Sena people are believed to have come from the neighboring Mozambique before settling in the Sothern part of Malawi in the Shire Valley. They were originally called Ashire and up to now they can still be found in the lower Shire Valley and they speak a language that is known as chisena. When you visit the Sena tribe, you will get to learn more about their culture like the legend about how the Sena people used people’s eyes as bait while fishing and that is why people believe that all those blind people that are on the streets of shire had their eyes taken out so that they could catch fish. There are also other activities that are carried out by the Sena people especially the women and this includes dancing and as a tradition as they go about dancing, the girls do it shirtless so you can either join them or enjoy the dance as a spectator.

The Nyakyusa and Ngonde people

These can be found in the Northern part of the country and they migrated with the other Bantu people and they can be found in the Karonga city. They speak a language known as the kyangonde and to get to know about their different cultural practices you have to visit Malawi and take a cultural trip to Karonga.

The Tumbuka people

The Tumbuka people are part of the Bantu and they are known to be the largest group of tribes in Northern Malawi that live in the parts of the Nyika plateau and the Viphya plateau. The witch doctors here always treat people through dance and all the Tumbuka people also believe that there is a direct link between dancing and healing and it is also the most educated tribe in the whole country.

Besides the many villages that you can visit in order to experience the culture of Malawians, there are several museums that tell the story of Malawians and some of these include:

Tour the Museum at Karonga

The Museum at Karonga is located at the border of Malawi and Tanzania and it was built by the Karonga chiefs. The museum was constructed so as to preserve the great culture of the Karonga so that the coming generations can still get to learn about their heritage. During the 19th century, there was slave trade in the country and you can get some stories about slave trade from the tour guides in the museum. The inside of the museum is filled with paintings on the walls that tell you the evolution of the Karonga culture from the early man times to the present times and the way in which they are arranged, it makes it so much easier for even children to easily understand what they are seeing but in case you do not, there are tour guides who can explain more about the paintings.

Explore the Mbona Rain shrines

 The Mbona Rain shrines were constructed around the 15th century and the locals believe that they can be healed from the shrines. The locals can be seen going to the shrines and offering sacrifices to the spirits for all the good things that they have received in life and they also believe that whatever you ask for as long as you are around the shrines, it is always granted by the spirits. The Mbona Rain shrines were also made a UNESO heritage site and when you ask the locals about it they will also tell you that if you do not offer any sacrifice at the shrines, the spirits get angry and calamities may befall the whole community where they are located.

Therefore if you want to know more about the culture in Malawi, you can visit the above places and many others that have not been mentioned so that you get the whole feel of the Malawian culture. There are many tour operators that arrange cultural trips to Malawi and therefore book with any of them so that you do not miss out on what Malawians can offer you when it comes to culture.


Exploring the historical and cultural sites in Malawi

Malawi as a landlocked country has a rich history that runs deep and there are many things in the country that tell the history better. Sometimes the best of stories are told through art and that is why most of the historical story in the country is told through the different monuments that are found in the country, museums and UNESCI heritage sites. All these show how far the country has come all the way from the slave trade times, colonial times to the present times. Some of the historical and cultural sites that you can visit in Malawi include:

The Saint Michael and All Angels church

The Saint Michael and all Angels church was constructed by the missionaries that came to Malawi during the 19th century. The main reason as to why it was constructed was because they had no place to say their prayers from and therefore they recruited locals who had no clue about construction and that is how the church came about. The church is located in the second largest town in Malawi and it is one of the best places to visit especially with your family. The amateur way in which the church was constructed adds to the beauty of the place and for all those that want a peaceful place away from the crowd, this is the perfect destination although you will need a tour guide who will help you move around easily while telling you about the wonderful history of the church.

Chichiri Museum

The Chichiri Museum is also known as the museum of Malawi and it is the perfect place for one to learn about both the cultural and historical nature of the Malawian people. When you get to the museum it will feel like stepping back in time during the modern times. There are a lot of things that you will be able to see the numerous things that are kept in the church and all these represent the culture that is carried out in the country and the slave history including how far the country has come into civilization. You will find a tour guide who will take you through the museum and help you understand everything that you will be seeing while at the museum.

The Museum at Karonga

The Museum at Karonga idea was initiated by the Karonga chiefs and it can be found on the shores of Lake Malawi. The museum was constructed so as to preserve the great culture of the Karonga so that the coming generations can still get to learn about their heritage. This is located at the border of Tanzania and Malawi and it was a notorious place for the slave trade that took place during the 19th century. The inside of the museum is filled with paintings on the walls that tell you the evolution of the Karonga culture from the early man times to the present times and the way in which they are arranged, it makes it so much easier for even children to easily understand what they are seeing but in case you do not, there are tour guides who can explain more about the paintings. And after visiting the museum, feel free to explore the famous Lake Malawi and all the activities that can be carried out here like fishing, boat riding and many more others.


The Chilwa wetland

Lake Chilwa is the second largest Lake in Malawi and it was made a UNESCO heritage site. It is located at the border of Mozambique and Malawi and it is greatly known for the large number of bird species that habitate around the Chilwa wetland. It is an extremely good place for all lovers of ecology and those that love birding. It also gives you an insight about how the locals who live in the area survive but before you visit the area, make sure that you go with insect repellents so as to avoid insect bites.

The World War 1 monument

The World War 1 monument is located in Lilongwe town and it is located in the same area where the monument of Kamuzu Banda who was a good freedom fighter in Malawi. The monument was set up to remember all the Malawian locals who went out to help fight during the World War one. There are tour guides who will be there to guide up the monument but you really need to be ready for the stair climbing because there are no elevators. When you get to the top of the monument you will have a clear view of the Lilongwe town and all that it has to offer.

You will also learn a great deal about Kamuzu Banda and all that he did for Malawi so that they could gain independence from the colonialists and the war that led to the independence of Malawi.

The Mbona Rain shrines

The Mbona sacred Rain shrines are found in Malawi and they are believed to have been in existence since the 15th century and they are considered to be sacred by the locals so do not get surprised to find many locals offering sacrifices of thanksgiving for all the good that they have received and they also believe that if you ask for anything as long as you are in the shrine, all your prayers will be answered.

The locals believe that the spirit of Mbona roams around and that is why they keep on offering him gifts so that it is not angered. And due to the fact that the shrines hold a cultural and spiritual meaning to the Malawi people, it was made a UNESCO heritage site and therefore feel free to pass by and get to know more about the Mbona Rain shrines while on your visit to Malawi.

Exploring the Zomba town

Anyone who wants to marvel at colonial buildings takes this trip to Zomba town just to see how the colonialists lived and their unique architecture. Zomba is the capital city of Malawi and it is also where the government of Malawi sits. Most people visit the Zomba town to admire the colonial buildings and also get to mix with the locals as they head to the markets to do their shopping. You also get to visit the old parliamentary building, the university and also learn more about Malawi as a country during the colonial times.

The Malawi slave routes and Livingstone trials

Malawi was one of the African countries where slave trade was carried out in Africa and the routes and the trail tell that slave story to whoever visit the country. This is the one place where the slave story is documented and this is a cherished part of the country that will never be forgotten and the routes were set up so that the future generation does not make the same mistakes that their fore fathers made. And that is why when you visit Malawi, make sure that you head down and see how it went down during the 19th century.

The Chongoni Rock Art

The Chongoni Rock Art is located in the central plateau in Malawi and it is one of the oldest and highest rock area on the whole of the African continent and the rock paints are what you would call ancient and many date the paintings back to the pygmies who used to live in the area. There are about 127 sites around the rock art and all these are used for spiritual purposes by the Chewa women. There are three entrances that lead to the rock art area and these are open to the public every day. A visit to the area will show give you a chance to learn more about the culture of the Malawi people and the only fee that you have to pay is for the tour guide but entrance if free to all people irrelevant of the age.

The Bembeke Cathedral

The Bembeke cathedral is located in the town of Dedza and it is also believed to have been constructed by the missionaries with unique bricks that have withstood time and can still be admired by tourists and not forgetting the paintings that are found inside the church that were painted by a local. Exploring the Bembeke cathedral is free but you will need a tour guide so that you can easily understand the history of the place.

The Chifunda Lundu

The Chifunda Lundu is located in Nsanje in Malawi and it is one of the cultural sites that can be found in Malawi. The place has a lot of history and locals tell all this to the tourists and a visit to the place will give you an insight about how they used to live many years ago. Locals used to go to the Chifunda Lundu to make sacrifices for good luck but these were stopped but you can still visit the place to learn about the history of the Malawi people. 

Morocco Cultural Tours

The Moroccan culture teaches us about the beliefs and civilization that the people of this country follow. Cultural tours will tell you about the people, their lifestyle and behavior, traditions and other concepts which are believed to be very crucial as well as essential and most requires by the Moroccan natives. There cultural tours arise from the mind set, beliefs, thoughts and behavior, festivals and religion followed by these people. The culture in this country is characterized by the wide and deep history in addition to the traditions of the people. Taking a tour or holiday in Morocco will give you the opportunity to know more about the culture of these people. The country has superb art &culture that clearly illustrates the social structure of this wonderful country. Cultural tours in this country spell out the civilization, diversification, religion and other specializations. Morocco’s cultural language is very unique and distinguishes it from all other languages.

Information About Cultural Tours In Morocco

Morocco’s culture is comprised of Berber tents, civilized and well accustomed women together with camel treks. Morocco’s climate, Moroccan food, Fes Guest Houses, Morocco’s Education and the Moroccan women spell out more about the Moroccan Cultural tours. The countries culture offers an enjoyable, customized, traditional and tranquil culture to the natives giving the country a wonderful blend of culture and civilization. The blend of the Islamic religion and the French language make morocco a very exciting and unique destination. For that matter therefore it is very wise for visitors to learn as much as they can prior to their traveling to respect the different cultures and reduce on negative impacts if any.Accommodation in Morocco ranges from luxury hotels,lodges,guest houses as well as apartments,the choice depends on what you want and remember they are quite affordable and some offered at a discount rate.

To properly interact with the natives of this country, one requires dressing modestly and knowing a few of words in the local language. Understanding and having respect for the differences between you and other people in the world will enable a good interaction with all parties. Visiting Imlil a small village in the Atlas Mountains and enjoying the pleasure of camping in the open Sahara Desert together with the Berber natives will certainly grant you the chance to share and interact positively with the natives of this area. This will certainly be a very memorable experience.

Encounter Cultural Tours In Morocco

Taking walks through the Atlas Mountains will surely spice up you holiday. The sight of the small villages hovering on the slopes of the mountains, the friendly and hospitable Berber people and the backdrop panorama all give you a scenic holiday in the Atlas Mountains. Marrakesh city also referred to as ‘Red City/”Al Hamra” is very popular with a total population of approximately 1,036,500 in Morocco’s south western region adjacent to the bottom of the Atlas Mountains. Marrakesh comes second after Casablanca as the largest city in the whole of Morocco and the ancient travelers referred to it as “Morocco City”. Before the coming of the Almoravids in the early eleventh century, this place was under the rule of Aghmat city.

The largest local market and busiest square on the whole of the African continent – Djemaa el Fna is found in Morocco’s Marrakesh city. The square is full of activity with acrobats, dancers, musicians, story-tellers water sellers during the day and in the night numerous food stalls open making the place a large open-space restaurant.Similar to numerous Middle East and North African cities, Marrakesh tour is characterized by both ancient fortified cities like the Medina and a neighboring modernized city –the Gueliz. The Menara International Airport serves this town in addition to a railway line connecting it to Casablanca and the northern part of the country.

Kenya Culture

Kenya is known for a tradition made from of several origins. This area happens to be crossed by the records of the extensive and then complex background. In the past facts of human evolution to the present day, Kenya has been some sort of area of unending transform, divergance as well as uniqueness.

The earlier tribal communities saw rounds of movements and transferring authority, with Kenya like a meeting place for individuals from the plainlands in the south, the forests from the West plus the deserts of the North.

The ocean brought influences coming from the outside world, also , the passage of trading in spices created the unique coastal tradition, where cuttinmg edges between Africa with Arabia faint. The large seacoast introduced European influences straight into this drastic changing world and began a strong struggle for change whose exotic background stays at this time.

The very first visitors located a territory of great peril and additionally superior charm, moreover their amazing escapades established probably the most distinctive colony in the British Empire. This was a forum of societies, where adventurers mixed with a detailed ethnic culture, very well as the coming of labourers and potential traders coming from India brought different and invasive impacts.

The colonial heritage thrives on in the culture on the exceptional safari, plus the objective of adventure and freedom.

Kenya has made use of many of these influences to cultivate its private exclusive society. This is the country’s most effective strength- the capacity to fuse the very best of several ethnic backgrounds in a firm, extraordinary identity.

These days, Kenya embraces everyone for visits and moreover looks to develop a modern tradition which is born for continual diversity, and yet firmly, proudly Kenyan.

Modern Culture

handful of people lament the continuous swap in lifestyles, and damage to several traditions and practices in preference for newer lifestyles. But more than all other country that is known Kenya has endeavored to maintain most of its traditional cultures. Certainly, around Kenya tradition and tradition seriously isn’t seen as staying connected to the past years, but an amorphous and evolving part of daily life.
The outcome is really a completely distinctive culture, through which it’s possible to view a Maasai walking throughout the plains utilizing his distended earlobes to support walkman headphones, a group of city Kikuyu joining inside a customary wedding ceremony ritual in which a bride is sung from her house through the grooms loved ones, or possibly a Samburu Business man with a traditionally beaded cellular cover.
The comfort for which Kenyans embrace as well as fine-tune to different cultural influences carries a lengthy the past. Kenyan tradition is actually built from the approval not to mention assimilation of emerging and different peoples and ways of life, regardless of whether previously it was migrant nomads or coastal merchants.
The end product can be described as heritage of possibly endless control yet one entire distinctive Kenyan in character.

Kenya Traditions

Kenya’s tradition illustrates the style of beautification and decoration, and heritage will show that this has long been a long and influential lifestyle. All over the country, there are lots of cases of rock paintings along with cave artwork by early man, in addition to similar styles and designs taken through recent hundreds of years.
Numerous Kenyan traditional communities placed great importance on decoration of handy and even ritual bits and pieces, as well as the body. In tribes such as the Kuria along with the Samburu, that was basically raised in to the style of great skill. The Samburu people place tremendous value for bodily elegance and adornment, particularly among warriors, who just take exceptional treatment with their physical appearance, using hair styling and ochre body painting to create an impact of great treat. It was this peculiarity that gained them their title Samburu- Butterflies, according to other tribal groups.
Numerous Northern nomadic tribes for example the Boran, Oromo and Gabbra greatly beautify handy objects, like water gourds, stools and neck pillows. The Turkana people that are in probably Kenya’s dry areas continue to manage remarkable care and focus to decorating of the body and items for example ostrisch egg waterholders, wrist knives and clubs.
Within the Maasai, making use of elaborate beading is extremely serious, and jewellrey is used to emphasize class and social status and also to indicate stages of initiation and passage. Modern forms of art and painting got firmly into Kenya steadily. The fine art of carving was indeed put to use across Kenya to make possibly functional or ornamental items.
The Kamba society has proven to be one of the best Kenyan sculpturers and carvers, and have long been referred to as talented carpenters. Carving on the coast was initially centred on the tropical isle of Lamu, exactly where the native Bajun tribe is actually assumed to get inspired Arab craftsmen in making a extraordinary hybrid of styles.
Most of the Kisii from Western Kenya likewise are well known with regard to their carving in stone, utilizing the domestically mined or quarried soapstone. They take advantage of a quarried soapstone to create a range of carvings. The most preferred products are small to medium sized animals, chess pieces in line with traditional African styles and more useful objects such as egg cups, soap dishes, coasters and ash trays.
The soapstone there differs in color from white-colored through several shades of pink over to a rich lustrous red. The tourism industry has surely found great impact on Kenyan carving, but numerous basic designs have survived, and sometimes latest and attractive carving patterns.
Graphical art in Kenya carries a much less defined historical past. You will find distinct traditions in theme as well as representation created from stone and rock craft patterns, but in addition significant impact for the coastline. Fabric and clothing pattern and embellished artwork along the coast produced strong Swahili artwork coming from Asian sources.
Artwork and drawing from the real European view was first presented during the colonial times. Kenyan painting has step by step improved integrating traditional designs with advanced skill.

Kenya Theatre

Art and theatre in the antique sense is quite famous in Nairobi. There is a National Theatre, and in addition numerous smaller dramatic Dramatic group centres. Possibly the most widely known are the Phoenix Players. Around Kenya, theatre and drama is commonly practiced as a type of social education.

Short spectacular performances are generally had in universities and social meetings in giving meaning to demonstrations, campaigns and rallies. performances for many plays are likely to be local manufacturing of international plays, and there is a real inclination towards vast comedy. Domestically acted and directed  plays are turning out to be rather regular, normally on social or political satirical performances or local farce comedey.

Kenyans happen to be really good fans of sarcastic humour and also tremendous comedy. Stand up comedy, normally in the style of group sketches or imitation, are very favorite. An extremely famous stand up comedy group, known as Redykyulass became extremely well-liked, and presented for a regular television platform making a combination of social and political ridicule.